Return to Lopez Labs Home Page


Results from Recent Testing

Austrian Eco-Firebox testing
Fuel Crib Repeatability Testing - 2014 Masonry Stove Builders
Fuel Crib Repeatability Testing - 2014 Stovemaster
Fuel Crib Testing - 2010

Data summary for 87 runs ( 2008 - 2010 )

March 20/14 - HK-M34

Red oak cordwood, big pieces
Side ignition.  Newspaper 3/4 up the kindling pile.
58.3 lbs including 5.0 lbs kindling
19.7% moisture.

0.58 g/kg PM (Condar)
20.071 g/kg CO
75.09% overall efficiency

March 19/14 - HK-M33

Red oak cordwood, big pieces
Side ignition.  Newspaper 3/4 up the kindling pile.
60.7 lbs including 5.5 lbs kindling
16.4% moisture.

0.41 g/kg PM (Condar)
13.97 g/kg CO
75.35% overall efficiency

March 18/14 - HK-M32

Sugar maple cordwood. 
Side ignition.  Newspaper 3/4 up the kindling pile.
59.5 lbs including 5.0 lbs kindling
19.0% moisture.

0.47 g/kg PM (Condar)
13.92 g/kg CO
75.35% overall efficiency

March 17/14 - HK-M31

Sugar maple cordwood. 
Side ignition.  Newspaper 3/4 up the kindling pile.
68.2 lbs including 5.5 lbs kindling
18.3% moisture.

0.55 g/kg PM (Condar)
14.34 g/kg CO
74.52% overall efficiency

March 16/14 - HK-M30

White birch cordwood. 
Side ignition.  Newspaper 3/4 up the kindling pile.
50.6 lbs including 5.00 lbs kindling
15.5% moisture.
2 dry pieces on top caused too fast a start.

1.29 g/kg PM (Condar)
26.46 g/kg CO
71.36% overall efficiency

March 13/14 - HK-M29

White birch cordwood. Small wood, cold fuel
Side ignition.  Newspaper 3/4 up the kindling pile.
42.4 lbs including 3.75 lbs kindling
15.5% moisture.

0.96 g/kg PM (Condar) - estimated due to lack of 1 clean filter weight
16.04 g/kg CO
72.32% overall efficiency

March 10/14 - HK-M28

Data loss due to power failure. Photographic record only.

Red oak cordwood. Large wood. Average piece weight 5.4 lbs
Side ignition.  Newspaper 3/4 up the kindling pile.
71.2 lbs including 6.2 lbs kindling
23% moisture (est)

March 9/14 - HK-M27

Red oak cordwood. Small wood, higher moisture than HK-M26
Side ignition.  Newspaper 3/4 up the kindling pile.
67.8 lbs including 6.0 lbs kindling
22.9% moisture.

0.53 g/kg PM (Condar)
13.61 g/kg CO
74.75% overall efficiency

March 8/14 - HK-M26

Red oak cordwood. Large wood.
Side ignition.  Newspaper 3/4 up the kindling pile.
60.1 lbs including 5.2 lbs kindling
18.7% moisture

0.46 g/kg PM (Condar)
16.76 g/kg CO
74.35% overall efficiency

March 7/14 - HK-M25

White birch cordwood. Large wood, mix of wet and dry (see fueling details in Condar spreadsheet)
Side ignition.  Newspaper 3/4 up the kindling pile.
61.7 lbs including 5.2 lbs kindling
22.4% moisture
Cleanest burn ever recorded on this heater.

0.46 g/kg PM (Condar)
13.39 g/kg CO
73.60% overall efficiency

March 6/14 - HK-M24

White birch cordwood.
4 lbs kindling on left side. Newspaper 2/3 up the kindling pile.
49.6 lbs including 4.00 lbs kindling
15.5% moisure (estimated)
Stack temperature corrected for height.

Very staged start.

0.89 g/kg PM (Condar)
15.33 g/kg CO
73.10% overall efficiency

March 5/14 - HK-M23

Austrian eco firebox, see  http://www.heatkit.com/research/lopez-2014-03-01.html
White birch crib. Crib turned 90 degrees from HK-M22
3.75 kindling on left side, as opposed to kindling on both sides, on HK-M22
37.1 lbs including 3.75 lbs kindling
15.1% moisure
Stack temperature corrected for height.

Compare with HK-M22, below. It used the same crib and kindling, except the
crib was turned 90 degrees and the side kindling was on one side instead of both sides.

Given what we have established in this test series about the excellent repeatability of cribs,
this is a good demonstration of how fuel and ignition geometry in the firebox affects emissions.
In particular, there is a dramatic effect on particulate (PM) emissions, but only a very small effect
on CO emissions in this example.

0.93 g/kg PM (Condar)
20.57 g/kg CO
72.63% overall efficiency

March 4/14 - HK-M22

Austrian eco firebox, see  http://www.heatkit.com/research/lopez-2014-03-01.html
White birch crib. Ignition from both sides.
40.6 lbs including 3.75 lbs kindling
15.7% moisure
Stack temperature corrected for height.

2.68 g/kg PM (Condar)
23.81 g/kg CO
71.70% overall efficiency

March 3/14 - HK-M21

Austrian eco firebox, see  http://www.heatkit.com/research/lopez-2014-03-01.html
White birch cordwood. Large wood, top ignition
57.2 lbs including 4.0 lbs kindling
15.5% moisure
Stack temperature corrected for height.

1.35 g/kg PM (Condar)
17.31 g/kg CO
73.26% overall efficiency

March 2/14 - HK-M20

Austrian eco firebox, see  http://www.heatkit.com/research/lopez-2014-03-01.html
White birch cordwood
46.0 lbs including 4.0 lbs kindling
15.2% moisure
Stack temperature corrected for height.

1.46 g/kg PM (Condar)
16.01 g/kg CO  ----- very low!
73.26% overall efficiency

February 20/14 - HK-M19

Red oak crib
41.8 lbs including 3.75 lbs kindling
16.5% moisure
Stack temperature corrected for height.

Pisla HTT 602 door, 22" wide
Custom air frame, setup "C"
Rear grate reduced 50%

1.22 g/kg PM (Condar)
40.50 g/kg CO
73.52% overall efficiency

February 19/14 - HK-M18

White birch 
47.1 lbs including 4.25 lbs kindling
18.2% moisure
Stack temperature corrected for height.

Pisla HTT 602 door, 22" wide
Custom air frame, setup "C"

Rear grate reduced 50%,

1.06 g/kg PM (Condar)
23.07 g/kg CO
73.87% overall efficiency

February 13/14 - HK-M17

White birch 3.5"x3.5" crib,
33.5 lbs including 3.4 lbs kindling
15.7% moisure
ASTM spec for crib stacking
Stack temperature corrected for height.

Pisla HTT 602 door, 22" wide
Custom air frame, setup "C"
Rear grate reduced 50%,

Repeat run of HK-M14

HK-M14:   bottom ignition   2.41g/kg PM     46.77g/kg CO      71.14 efficiency
HK-M16:   side ignition        1.37g/kg PM     35.17g/kg CO      71.41 efficiency
HK-M17:    bottom ignition  2.60g/kg PM     53.46g/kg CO      70.24 efficiency

2.60 g/kg PM (Condar)
54.46 g/kg CO
70.24% overall efficiency

February 8/14 - HK-M16

This run has extensive video documentation including slow motion at 240 frames/second

White birch 3.5"x3.5" crib,
35.2 lbs including 3.75 lbs kindling
15.6% moisure
ASTM spec for crib stacking
Stack temperature corrected for height.

Pisla HTT 602 door, 22" wide
Custom air frame, setup "C"
Rear grate reduced 50%,

Repeat run of HK-M14, with the kindling changed from bottom ignition to side ignition.

HK-M14:   bottom ignition   2.41g/kg PM     46.77g/kg CO      71.14 efficiency
HK-M16:  side ignition         1.37g/kg PM     35.17g/kg CO      71.41 efficiency

1.37 g/kg PM (Condar)
35.17 g/kg CO
71.41% overall efficiency

February 7/14 - HK-M15

Tamarack 3.5"x3.5" crib,
35.4 lbs including 3.75 lbs kindling
15.4% moisure
ASTM spec for crib stacking
Stack temperature corrected for height.

Pisla HTT 602 door, 22" wide
Custom air frame, setup "C"
Rear grate reduced 50%,

Third repeat run of HK-M12
Very good repeatability: 

HK-M12:  1.47 g/kg PM    49.5   g/kg CO    70.38% efficiency
HK-M13:  1.48 g/kg PM    44.32 g/kg CO    71.55% efficiency
HK-M15:  1.52 g/kg PM    45.34 g/kg CO    71.52% efficiency

1.52 g/kg PM (Condar)
45.34 g/kg CO
71.52% overall efficiency


February 6/14 - HK-M14

White birch 3.5"x3.5" crib,
35.2 lbs including 3.75 lbs kindling
15.6% moisure
ASTM spec for crib stacking
Stack temperature corrected for height.

Pisla HTT 602 door, 22" wide
Custom air frame, setup "C"
Rear grate reduced 50%,

Repeat of run HK-M12, different species, plus additional data on 95% oxygen recovery as the "end of test".

2.41 g/kg PM (Condar)
46.77 g/kg CO
71.14% overall efficiency

February 5/14 - HK-M13

Tamarack 3.5"x3.5" crib,
35.1 lbs including 3.75 lbs kindling
15.3% moisure
ASTM spec for crib stacking
Stack temperature corrected for height.

Pisla HTT 602 door, 22" wide
Custom air frame, setup "C"
Rear grate reduced 50%,

Repeat of run HK-M12 
Additional data with test run to 95% oxygen recovery.

1.48 g/kg PM (Condar)
44.32 g/kg CO
71.55% overall efficiency

February 4/14 - HK-M12

Tamarack 3.5"x3.5" crib,
37.1 lbs including 3.75 lbs kindling
15.5% moisure
ASTM spec for crib stacking
Stack temperature corrected for height.

Pisla HTT 602 door, 22" wide
Custom air frame, setup "C"
Rear grate reduced 50%,

First of 3 run series 

1.47 g/kg PM (Condar)
49.5 g/kg CO
70.38% overall efficiency


Video of test

February 3/14 - HK-M11

Hard maple 4x4 crib, 55.6 lbs, 21.5% moisure, 7 lbs kindling
ASTM spec for crib stacking
Stack temperature corrected for height.

Pisla HTT 602 door, 22" wide
Custom air frame, setup "C"
Rear grate reduced 50%,

4th repeat of run HK-M07 

1.23 g/kg PM (Condar)
35.22 g/kg CO
72.64% overall efficiency 

February 2/14 - HK-M10

Hard maple 4x4 crib, 61.9 lbs, 20.8% moisure, 7 lbs kindling
ASTM spec for crib stacking
Stack temperature corrected for height.

Pisla HTT 602 door, 22" wide
Custom air frame, setup "C"
Rear grate reduced 50%,

3rd repeat of run HK-M07 

1.50 g/kg PM (Condar)
31.86 g/kg CO
73.29% overall efficiency 

February 1 /14 - HK-M09

Hard maple 4x4 crib, 59.5 lbs, 19.9% moisure, 7 lbs kindling
ASTM spec for crib stacking
Stack temperature corrected for height.

Pisla HTT 602 door, 22" wide
Custom air frame, setup "C"
Rear grate reduced 50%,

Second repeat of run HK-M07 

1.00 g/kg PM (Condar)
26.66 g/kg CO
73.26% overall efficiency 

January 31/14 - HK-M08

Hard maple 4x4 crib, 57.1 lbs, 21.0% moisure, 7 lbs kindling
ASTM spec for crib stacking
Stack temperature corrected for height.

Pisla HTT 602 door, 22" wide
Custom air frame, setup "C"
Rear grate reduced 50%,

Repeat of run HK-M07 

0.72 g/kg PM (Condar)
26.66 g/kg CO
73.62% overall efficiency 

January 30/14 - HK-M07

Hard maple 4x4 crib, 61.1 lbs, 19.8% moisure, 7 lbs kindling
ASTM spec for crib stacking
Stack temperature corrected for height.

Pisla HTT 602 door, 22" wide
Custom air frame, setup "C"
Rear grate reduced 50%,

Very clean run because of adequate kindling.

0.73 g/kg PM (Condar)
20.32 g/kg CO
74.57 % overall efficiency

January 29/14 - HK-M06

ASTM crib configuration.

Hard maple 4x4's 57.1 lbs total, incl. 5 lbs kindling. 20.3% moisture.

Efficiency is calculated at 2 hrs burn time
Stack temperature corrected for height.

Add on bell 
Pisla HTT 602 door, 22" wide
Custom air frame, setup "C"

1.45 g/kg PM (Condar)
24.70 g/kg CO
74.09 % overall efficiency

January 28/14 - HK-M05

ASTM crib configuration.

Hard maple 4x4's 58.3 lbs total, incl. 3.75 lbs kindling. 21.1% moisture.

Efficiency is calculated at 2 hrs burn time
Stack temperature corrected for height.

Add on bell 
Pisla HTT 602 door, 22" wide
Custom air frame, setup "C"

2.60 g/kg PM (Condar)
28.30 g/kg CO
73.27 % overall efficiency

January 27/14 - HK-M04

ASTM crib configuration.

Hard maple 4x4's 56.6 lbs total, incl. 3.75 lbs kindling. 20.8% moisture.

Efficiency is calculated at 2 hrs burn time
Stack temperature corrected for height.

Add on bell 
Pisla HTT 602 door, 22" wide
Custom air frame, setup "C"

1.28 g/kg PM (Condar)
26.50 g/kg CO
73.49 % overall efficiency

January 26/14 - HK-M03

ASTM crib configuration.

Hard maple 4x4's 57.0 lbs total, incl. 3.75 lbs kindling. 20.3% moisture.

Efficiency is calculated at 2 hrs burn time
Stack temperature corrected for height.

Add on bell 
Pisla HTT 602 door, 22" wide
Custom air frame, setup "B"

2.35 g/kg PM (Condar)
27.52 g/kg CO
71.54 % overall efficiency

January 25/14 - HK-M02

Hard maple 4x4's 57.5 lbs total, incl. 3.75 lbs kindling. 21.0% moisture.
ASTM crib configuration.

Efficiency is calculated at 2 hrs burn time
Stack temperature corrected for height.

Add on bell 
Pisla HTT 602 door, 22" wide
Custom air frame, setup "B"

1.82 g/kg PM (Condar)
32.00 g/kg CO
73.36 % overall efficiency

January 24/14 - HK-M01

Hard maple 4x4's 57 lbs total, incl. 3.75 lbs kindling. 20.3% moisture.
ASTM crib configuration.

Efficiency is calculated at 2 hrs burn time
Stack temperature corrected for height.

Add on bell 
Pisla HTT 602 door, 22" wide
Custom air frame, setup "A"

1.68 g/kg PM (Condar)
30.76 g/kg CO
74.21 % overall efficiency

March 06/10 - HK-L22

White birch, 49.7 lb total, incl. 3.75 lbs kindling. 29.4% moisture.
North-South loading. Largest pieces first. Loaded onto a coal bed (Colorado method)
Efficiency is calculated at 95% oxygen recovery (Colorado method).
Stack temperature corrected for height.

Add-on bell has been extended in height by 5 courses.
Compared to last run:
Smaller load, cooler firebox.
Lower stack temperature, however lower burn rate results in higher oxygen, and slightly less overall efficiency

0.71 g/kg PM (Condar)
25.69 g/kg CO
73.95 % overall efficiency

March 05/10 - HK-L21

Third consecutive test with large load of wet birch, stacked front to back. Not matched to set L19-L20
White birch, 75.8 lb total, incl. 3.75 lbs kindling. 31.1% moisture.
North-South loading. Largest pieces first. Loaded onto a coal bed (Colorado method)
Efficiency is calculated at 95% oxygen recovery (Colorado method).
Stack temperature corrected for height.

Add-on bell has been extended in height by 5 courses.
Hot firebox resulted in faster burn than set L19-L20
Stack temperature 15 degrees lower than L20

0.85 g/kg PM (Condar)
26.94 g/kg CO
76.03 % overall efficiency

February 26/10 - HK-L20

Second of a pair of matched loads, large loads of wet birch, stacked front to back.
White birch, 78.1 lb total, incl. 3.75 lbs kindling. 31.7% moisture.
North-South loading. Largest pieces first. Loaded onto a coal bed (Colorado method)
Efficiency is calculated at 95% oxygen recovery (Colorado method).
Stack temperature corrected for height.

Did not spike like last test, slower controlled start, yet hotter burn overall, slightly shorter.
Slightly drier, hotter firebox to start, so difference must have been in the stacking.
40% lower PM, 20% lower CO, 0.6% higher efficiency

1.05 g/kg PM (Condar)
20.28 g/kg CO
74.90 % overall efficiency

February 25/10 - HK-L19

First of a pair of matched loads, large loads of wet birch, stacked front to back.
White birch, 79.0 lb total, incl. 3.75 lbs kindling. 34.2% moisture.
North-South loading. Largest pieces first. Loaded onto a coal bed (Colorado method)
Efficiency is calculated at 95% oxygen recovery (Colorado method).
Stack temperature corrected for height.

Modified bell from HK-L17.

1.54 g/kg PM (Condar)
25.92 g/kg CO
74.31 % overall efficiency

February 21/10 - HK-L18

Fuel load similar to HK-L16 and L17. Not matched, however. Warm heater.
White birch, 51.6 lb total, incl. 3.75 lbs kindling. 31.7% moisture.
North-South loading. Largest pieces first. Loaded onto a coal bed (Colorado method)
Efficiency is calculated at 95% oxygen recovery (Colorado method).
Stack temperature corrected for height.

Modified bell from HK-L17.

1.30 g/kg PM (Condar)
25.43 g/kg CO
74.38 % overall efficiency

February 20/10 - HK-L17

Second test of a control pair with cordwood.
Matched set of fuel loads. Warm heater.
White birch, 53.1 lb total, incl. 3.75 lbs kindling. 28.3% moisture.
North-South loading. Largest pieces first. Loaded onto a coal bed (Colorado method)
Efficiency is calculated at 95% oxygen recovery (Colorado method).
Stack temperature corrected for height.

For this test, the bell attached to the heater was modified. A diverter brick was added
inside. The average stack temperature dropped 13 degrees, and the efficiency increased
by 1.5%.

0.94 g/kg PM (Condar)
24.97 g/kg CO
74.48 % overall efficiency

February 19/10 - HK-L16

First test of a control pair with cordwood.
Matched set of fuel loads. Warm heater.
White birch, 54.2 lb total, incl. 3.75 lbs kindling. 28.3% moisture.
North-South loading. Largest pieces first. Loaded onto a coal bed (Colorado method)
Efficiency is calculated at 95% oxygen recovery (Colorado method).
Stack temperature corrected for height.

1.05 g/kg PM (Condar)
26.10 g/kg CO
73.02 % overall efficiency

February 17/10

Data and statistical summary, 4 matched pairs of crib tests

February 4/10 - HK-L15

Series 4: Test #2 of a 2 test pair with matched cribs. Warm heater.
Colorado M-4 (MHA Fueling Protocol) cribs. Spruce at 19.4% average moisture.
Loading factor 0.15 . Reload
3.75 lbs kindling + 26.8 lb crib (19.30 % av moisture) + reload w. 27.4 lb crib (19.52% av moisture).
Efficiency is calculated at 95% oxygen recovery (Colorado method).
Stack temperature corrected for height.
Detailed moisture descriptions of cribs to follow.
Condar spreadsheet contains detailed lab notes.

1.13 g/kg PM (Condar)
24.29 g/kg CO
72.06 % overall efficiency

February 3/10 - HK-L14

Series 4: Test #1 of a 2 test pair with matched cribs. Warm heater.
Colorado M-4 (MHA Fueling Protocol) cribs. Spruce at 19.1% average moisture.
Loading factor 0.15 . Reload
3.75 lbs kindling + 27.2 lb crib (19.02 % av moisture) + reload w. 26.8 lb crib (19.11% av moisture).
Efficiency is calculated at 95% oxygen recovery (Colorado method).
Stack temperature corrected for height.
Detailed moisture descriptions of cribs to follow.
Condar spreadsheet contains detailed lab notes.

1.30 g/kg PM (Condar)
23.67 g/kg CO
72.28 % overall efficiency

February 2 /10 - HK-L13

Cold heater. Warmup run for L14/L15, which is the 4th repeat test with matched cribs, in a warmed heater.
Colorado M-4 (MHA Fueling Protocol) cribs. Spruce at 21.7% average moisture.
Loading factor 0.15 . Reload
3.75 lbs kindling + 27.0 lb crib (21.57 % av moisture) + reload w. 26.7 lb crib (21.85% av moisture).
Efficiency is calculated at 95% oxygen recovery (Colorado method).
Stack temperature corrected for height.
Lower PM than L12, which was 5% lower moisture (16.7%), also smaller load, and cool heater instead of cold heater.

First test with a new batch of 2x4 lumber, from a different supplier than L05 - L12

1.55 g/kg PM (Condar)
31.04 g/kg CO
71.53 % overall efficiency

January 26/10 - HK-L12

Series 3: Test #2 of a 2 test pair with matched cribs.
Cool heater. Fired 24 hours previously, but ashbox door and chimney damper left open by mistake.
Colorado M-4 (MHA Fueling Protocol) cribs spruce at 16.7% average moisture.
Loading factor 0.13 . Reload
3.75 lbs kindling + 18.8 lb crib (16.72 % av moisture, estimated) + reload w. 16.2 lb crib (16.72% av measured moisture).
Efficiency is calculated at 95% oxygen recovery (Colorado method).
Stack temperature corrected for height.
This test seems very close to the previous one. The colder start could account for the higher PM.

1.98 g/kg PM (Condar)
22.55 g/kg CO
73.13 % overall efficiency

Compared to HK-L11:
This test seems very close.
The colder start could account for the higher PM, and the slightly higher efficiency.
Average stack temperature was 8 degrees (F) lower.

January 25/10 - HK-L11

Series 3: Test #1 of a 2 test pair with matched cribs. Warm heater. See fuel notes Colorado M-4 (MHA Fueling Protocol) cribs spruce at 16.1% average moisture.
Loading factor 0.13 . Reload
3.75 lbs kindling + 18.8 lb crib (16.10 % av moisture) + reload w. 16.8 lb crib (16.10% av moisture).
Efficiency is calculated at 95% oxygen recovery (Colorado method).
Stack temperature corrected for height.

1.71 g/kg PM (Condar)
22.48 g/kg CO
73.00 % overall efficiency

January 24/10 - HK-L10

Series 2: Test #2 of a 2 test pair with matched cribs. Warm heater.
Colorado M-4 (MHA Fueling Protocol) cribs spruce at 16.1% average moisture.
Loading factor 0.15 . Reload
3.75 lbs kindling + 26.6 lb crib (16.56 % av moisture) + reload w. 24.6 lb crib (15.60% av moisture).
Efficiency is calculated at 95% oxygen recovery (Colorado method).
Stack temperature corrected for height.

2.28 g/kg PM (Condar)
23.22 g/kg CO
72.92 % overall efficiency

Compared to HK-L09:

- load was 6% (3.2 lbs) heavier
- kindling slightly slower, more left to ignite crib
- first crib burned slightly faster
- an error was made on the second crib, and it was loaded upside down. This meant that it had spacers underneath, whereas normally the crib has been loaded directly onto the coal. This allowed more air under, resulting in a faster start, and a higher CO spike than L-08.

The batch of 2x4's used for the last 4 tests has been very variable in moisture, both piece to piece, adjacent pieces cut out of the same stick, and particularly from the surface to the core. A more detailed description of the matching technique used will follow. A third back-to-back test from the same batched is planned for tomorrow (Jan 25) and Jan 26. Obtaining more uniform fuel will be the next task.

January 23/10 - HK-L09

Series 2: Test #1 of a 2 test pair with matched cribs at 16.1% moisture.Warm heater.
Colorado M-4 (MHA Fueling Protocol) cribs.
Loading factor 0.15 . Reload
3.75 lbs kindling + 25.8 lb crib (16.28% moisture) + reload w. 25.8 lb crib (15.82% moisture).
Efficiency is calculated at 95% oxygen recovery (Colorado method).
Stack temperature corrected for height.

1.79 g/kg PM (Condar)
22.52 g/kg CO
73.27 % overall efficiency

January 22/10 - HK-L08

Series 1: Test #2 of a 2 test pair with matched cribs. Warm heater.
Colorado M-4 (MHA Fueling Protocol) cribs (spruce at 20.2% average moisture).
Loading factor 0.15. Reload
3.75 lbs kindling + 24.0 lb crib (20.23% moisture) + reload w. 24.0 lb crib (20.25% moisture).
Efficiency is calculated at 95% oxygen recovery (Colorado method).
Stack temperature corrected for height.

1.63 g/kg PM (Condar)
26.14 g/kg CO
71.83 % overall efficiency

January 21/10 - HK-L07

Series 1: Test #1 of a 2 test pair with matched cribs. Warm heater.
Colorado M-4 (MHA Fueling Protocol) cribs (spruce at 19.7% average moisture.) Loading factor 0.15. Reload
3.75 lbs kindling + 24.0 lb crib + reload w. 25.0 lb crib.
Efficiency is calculated at 95% oxygen recovery (Colorado method).
Stack temperature corrected for height.

1.55 g/kg PM (Condar)
26.85 g/kg CO
71.47 % overall efficiency

January 20/10 - HK-L06

Cold heater. Colorado M-4 (MHA Fueling Protocol) fuel cribs.
Loading factor 0.13. Reload
3.75 lbs kindling + 22 lb crib + reload w. 22.6 lb crib.
Efficiency is calculated at 95% oxygen recovery (Colorado method).
Stack temperature corrected for height.

1.83 g/kg PM (Condar)
21.8 g/kg CO
74.6 % overall efficiency

January 12/10 - HK-L05

Warm heater. Fuel crib of very dry spruce. Larger crib than L03/L04
3.75 lbs kindling. 51.6 lbs total instead of 39 lbs.
Efficiency is calculated at 95% oxygen recovery (Colorado method).
Stack temperature corrected for probe height.

2.94 g/kg PM (Condar)
93.43 g/kg CO
70.0 % overall efficiency

January 11/10 - HK-L04

Warm heater. Crib of very dry spruce. Same crib as L03, except spacers changed for more air.
3.75 lbs kindling. 38.5 lbs total. Regular kindling insead of a crib.
Efficiency is calculated at 95% oxygen recovery (Colorado method).
Stack temperature corrected for probe height.

1.45 g/kg PM (Condar)
34.55 g/kg CO
70.5% overall efficiency

January 10/10 - HK-L03

Cold heater. small crib of dry spruce. Spacers not correct - blocking some airflow through pile.
3.75 lbs kindling. 39.8 lbs total.
Efficiency is calculated at 95% oxygen recovery (Colorado method).

2.17 g/kg PM (Condar)
38.71 g/kg CO
69.4% overall efficiency

January 6/10 - HK-L02

Warm heater. Large crib of 10% moisture spruce, followed by a load of 25% moisture hardwood
122.5 lbs total
Gas reading were lost due to computer crash
- estimated values used to obtain a rough PM number

1.9 g/kg PM (Condar)

January 5/10 - HK-L01

Cold heater. Cold fuel. No draft, slow start, dirty burn.
9 pieces dry hardwood. 4.5 lbs kindling. 59 lbs total.
Efficiency now is calculated at 95% oxygen recovery (Colorado method)
Highest PM on record.

4.61 g/kg PM (Condar)
48.9 g/kg CO
69.1% overall efficiency

February 25/09 - HK-K37

Warm heater. Previous fire 24 hrs.
White Birch, 20% moisture
Llarge load. Two very large pieces at bottom. 3 small pieces on top
9 pieces. 4.5 lbs kindling. 68.4 lbs total. Pieces smaller than yesterday: 7.1 lbs vs. 8.9 lbs
Clean start. No overamping, except for second poke. Pieces stacked too tight.
Kindling ran out of steam, added 1.5 lbs.
Low CO. Very low PM. Compared with run HK-K36, CO is higher, PM is lower.
Air control closed at 115 minutes. Data for calculation based on 114 minutes. Flue damper left open 1",
closed 6 hrs later.

.65 g/kg PM (Condar)
21.30 g/kg CO
69.4% overall efficiency

February 24/09 - HK-K36

Warm heater. Previous fire 24 hrs.
White Birch, 20% moisture
Very large load. Two very large pieces (12.8 lbs ea) at bottom. 3 small pieces on top
10 pieces. 3.3 lbs kindling. 81.9 lbs total. Pieces larger than yesterday: 8.9 lbs vs. 5.9 lbs
Very staged burn. Clean start. No overamping.
Low CO. Low PM. Compared with run HK-K35, CO is lower, PM is higher.
Air control closed at 120 minutes. Data for calculation based on 120 minutes. Flue damper left open 1", closed 6 hrs later.

.90 g/kg PM (Condar)
14.33 g/kg CO
70.13% overall efficiency

February 23/09 - HK-K35

Very warm heater. Previous fire 15 hrs.
White Birch, 20% moisture
Big load. Two very large pieces (12.3 lbs ea) at bottom. 3 small pieces on top
11 pieces. 3.5 lbs kindling. 68.3 lbs total. Pieces larger than yesterday: 5.9 lbs vs. 4.6 lbs
Very staged burn. Clean start. Slight, prolonged overamping at 23 minutes
Moderate CO. Low PM. Compare with run HK-K34
Air control closed at 94 minutes. Data for calculation based on 100 minutes. Flue damper left open 1".

.70 g/kg PM (Condar)
22.82 g/kg CO
69.2% overall efficiency

February 22/09 - HK-K34

Hot heater. Previous fire 7 hrs.
White Birch, 20% moisture
Small pieces, big load, stacked front to back. Ignition from top.
15 pieces. 3.3 lbs kindling. 73.0 lbs total. Pieces larger than yesterday: 4.6 lbs vs. 3.2 lbs
Very staged burn. Clean start. Moderate overamping at 25 minutes
Moderate CO. Low PM. Compare with run HK-K33

.80 g/kg PM (Condar)
25.68 g/kg CO
70.5% overall efficiency

February 22/09 - HK-K33

Warm heater. Previous fire 13 hrs.
White Birch, 20% moisture
"Austrian style fuel". Very small pieces. 18 pieces. 3.9 lbs kindling. 60.4 lbs total. Pieces larger than yesterday: 3.2 lb vs. 2.1 lbs
Stacked front to back. Ignition from top
Very staged burn. Clean start. Overamping starting at 35 minutes.
Moderate CO. Low PM. Compare with run HK-K32
Data for calculation stopped at 70 minutes, when air control was closed.
Flue damper left open 0.5".

.94 g/kg PM (Condar)
27.97 g/kg CO
73.3% overall efficiency

February 21/09 - HK-K32

Warm heater. Previous fire 8 hrs. Hot firebox.
White Birch, 20% moisture
"Austrian style fuel".
Very small pieces. 17 pieces. 3.5 lbs kindling. 39.7 lbs total, stacked teepee style.
Very fast, clean start. CO peak at 12 minutes.
Fast burn - 50 minutes
Moderate CO. Low PM. Compare with run HK-K31
Data for calculation stopped at 50 minutes, when air control was closed.
Flue damper left open 0.5".

.84 g/kg PM (Condar)
22.04 g/kg CO
71.9% overall efficiency

February 21/09 - HK-K31

Warm heater. Previous fire 24 hrs.
Firebox door left open overnight - firebox not very hot.
White Birch, 20% moisture
"Austrian style fuel".
Very small pieces. 10 pieces. 4 lbs kindling. 35.5 lbs total, stacked teepee style.
False start, more kindling added at 6 minutes
Slow burn, low opacity, high oxygen, steady CO
Moderate CO. Moderate PM. Low stack temp, high oxygen, lower efficiency.
Data for calculation stopped at 80 minutes, when air control was closed.
Flue damper left open 1" and shut 4 hrs later.

1.18 g/kg PM (Condar)
27.61 g/kg CO
69.4% overall efficiency

February 20/09 - HK-K30

Warm heater. Previous fire 24 hrs.
White Birch, 20% moisture
4 large pieces, 3 medium pieces, 3 small pieces. 4.5 lbs kindling, 76.2 lbs total
Pieces loaded in hot heater, 8 hrs after fire, and baked in firebox for 14 hours.
Standard log cabin stacking. Side kindling, newspaper near top. Kindling not baked.
3 small pieces on top, next to the kindling.
Good bright ignition. Huge CO spike at 14 minutes. CO never really cleaned up
High CO. Moderate PM.
Data for calculation stopped at 90 minutes, when air control was closed.
Cold air bypass open. Doors not taped. Flue damper left open 1" and shut 4 hrs later.

1.35 g/kg PM (Condar)
39.53 g/kg CO
71.3% overall efficiency

February 19/09 - HK-K29

Warm heater. Previous fire 24 hrs.
White Birch, 20% moisture
5 large pieces, 3 small pieces. 4.5 lbs kindling, 67.2 lbs total
Standard log cabin stacking. Side kindling, staged.
3 small pieces on top, next to the kindling.
Good clean ignition. Moderate CO spike at 25 minutes
Moderate CO. Low PM.
Data for calculation stopped at 90 minutes, when air control was closed.
Cold air bypass open. Doors not taped. Flue damper left open 1" and shut 4 hrs later.

0.77 g/kg PM (Condar)
19.81 g/kg CO
72.5 % overall efficiency

February 18/09 - HK-K28

Warm heater. Previous fire 24 hrs.
White Birch, 20% moisture
6 large pieces. 1 small piece. 4.5 lbs kindling, 63.4 lbs total
Standard log cabin stacking. Side kindling, staged.
Wood was cold. The single small piece was put at the front of the second row.
Slow ignition due to cold wood, then overamping due to the small piece, then underamping (rebound from the overamping). See gas curves.
High CO. Relatively high PM.
Data for calculation stopped at 90 minutes, when air control was closed.
Cold air bypass open. Doors not taped. Flue damper left open 1" and shut 4 hrs later.

1.93 g/kg PM (Condar)
40.22 g/kg CO
71.3 % overall efficiency

February 17/09 - HK-K27

Warm heater. Previous fire 24 hrs.
White Birch, 20% moisture
Small pieces. 9 pieces, 4.5 lbs kindling, 60.6 lbs total
Standard log cabin stacking. Top kindling. See stacking photo.
Well staged ignition, avoiding CO spike at start.
Data for calculation stopped at 90 minutes, when air control was closed.
Cold air bypass open. Doors not taped. Flue damper left open 1" and shut 4 hrs later.

0.82 g/kg PM (Condar)
12.47 g/kg CO
73.6 % overall efficiency

February 16/09 - HK-K26

Warm heater. Previous fire 24 hrs.
White Birch, 20% moisture
Large pieces. 8 pieces, 4.5 lbs kindling, 69.4 lbs total
Standard log cabin stacking. Side kindling, staged from top.
Data for calculation stopped at 100 minutes, when air control was closed.
Cold air bypass open. Doors not taped. Flue damper left open 1" and shut 6 hrs later.

0.74 g/kg PM (Condar)
20.93 g/kg CO
70.7 % overall efficiency

February 15/09 - HK-K25

Warm heater. Previous fire 24 hrs.
White Birch, 20% moisture
Large pieces. 7 pieces, 4.5 lbs kindling, 64.1 lbs total
Pieces stacked front to back. Kindling as shown
Bad stacking, bad kindling location. Pile didn't catch, newspaper was added at 23 minutes
Pile poked twice. Slow burn, elevated oxygen, continuous low level CO..
Data for calculation stopped at 120 minutes, when air control was closed.
Cold air bypass open. Doors not taped. Flue damper shut 2 hrs after air was shut.

1.05 g/kg PM (Condar)
27.20 g/kg CO
69.9 % overall efficiency

February 14/09 - HK-K24

Slightly warm heater. Large load 48 hrs previous, damper closed
White Birch, 20% moisture
Very large pieces. 8 pieces, 4.5 lbs kindling, 73.5 lbs total
Pieces stacked front to back. Kindling on right side, lit from top
Very fast and clean start. 2pc left-to-right on rear grate, to provide delayed ignition from
the grate location. This was a mistake - load overamped, very high CO starting at about 10 minutes
Low PM, high CO. Efficiency loss from CO alone was 4.6%
Data for calculation stopped at 90 minutes, when air control was closed.
Cold air bypass open. Doors not taped. Flue damper shut 2 hrs after air was shut.

0.97 g/kg PM (Condar)
40.78 g/kg CO
72.6 % overall efficiency

February 12/09 - HK-K23

Very warm heater - large load yesterday, with damper closed, weather warmer than during most of the testing.
White Birch, 20% moisture
Very small pieces. 16 pieces, 4.5 lbs kindling, 61.4 lbs total
Pieces stacked front to back. Kindling on top.
Sluggish start. Chimney was cold, 59F. Slight spillage on start. Water condensed on the glass, big CO spike.
Data for calculation stopped at 90 minutes, when air control was closed.
Cold air bypass open. Doors not taped. Flue damper shut 2 hrs after air was shut.

1.12 g/kg PM (Condar)
26.79 g/kg CO
74.4 % overall efficiency

February 11/09 - HK-K22

Warm heater - damper had been left open, ashbox air control closed. Seal on door. Cold air bypass open.
White Birch, 20% moisture
Large load, very large pieces, 8 pieces, 4.5 lbs kindling, 76.8 lbs total
Pieces stacked front to back. Kindling stacked between two pieces on right(see stacking pattern)
Sluggish start due to kindling configuration - newspaper wadded into too tight a space.
Data for calculation stopped at 112 minutes, when air control was closed.
Cold air bypass open. Doors not taped. Flue damper shut 2 hrs after air was shut.

0.88 g/kg PM (Condar)
13.45 g/kg CO
75.4 % overall efficiency

February 10/09 - HK-K21

Slightly warm heater - damper had been left open, ashbox air control closed. Cold air bypass was open.
White Birch, 20% moisture
Small, 11 pieces, 4.5 lbs kindling, 62.6 lbs total
Pieces stacked front to back. Kindling stacked between two pieces on right(see stacking pattern)
Zero CO spike at the beginning. Extremely clean start. Overamped at 19 minutes.
Low oxygen value (good efficiency)
Data for calculation stopped at 81 minutes, when air control was closed.
Flue damper left open. Cold air bypass open.
Same as yesterday, except door and ashbox door taped shut (reduced leakage).

1.11 g/kg PM (Condar)
23.52 g/kg CO
74.3 % overall efficiency

February 9/09 - HK-K20

Slightly warm heater - damper had been left open, ashbox air control closed.
No seal on doors.
White Birch, 20% moisture
Large, 7 pieces, 4.5 lbs kindling, 62.8 lbs total
Pieces stacked front to back.
Kindling stacked between two pieces on right (see stacking pattern)
Zero CO spike at the beginning. Very low CO overall.
Very low PM. Very steady oxygen value.
Data for calculation stopped at 90 minutes, when air control was closed.
Flue damper left open. Cold air bypass open.

0.67 g/kg PM (Condar)
10.57 g/kg CO
72.8 % overall efficiency

February 8/09 - HK-K19

Slightly warm heater - damper had been left open, ashbox air control closed. No seal on doors.
White Birch, 20% moisture
Small wood, 11 pieces, 4.5 lbs kindling, 64.2 lbs total
Pieces stacked front to back. Kindling on top, favoring right side (see stackin pattern)
No CO spike at the beginning. Very steady oxygen value.
Data for calculation stopped at 71 minutes, when air control was closed.
Flue damper left open. Cold air bypass closed.

0.89 g/kg PM (Condar)
13.03 g/kg CO
74.6 % overall efficiency

February 7/09 - HK-K18

Slightly warm heater - damper had been left open, ashbox air control 1/2 open.
White Birch, 20% moisture
9pieces, 4.5 lbs kindling, 61.6 lbs total
Pieces tacked front to back. Kindling on top, favoring right side (see stackin pattern)
No CO spike at the beginning. Very steady oxygen value.
Data for calculation stopped at 71 minutes, when air control was closed.
Flue damper left open. Cold air bypass open. See surface temp curves

0.54 g/kg PM (Condar)
13.7 g/kg CO
72.0 % overall efficiency

Will repeat with small wood, to get more reliable numbers for HK-K17

February 6/09 - HK-K17

Cool heater - damper and ashbox door had been left open from yesterday's burn
White Birch, 20% moisture
12 pieces, 4.5 lbs kindling, 64.4 lbs total
Smaller pieces, stacked front to back. Kindling on top.
No CO spike at the beginning, a very significant result.
Data problems with Testo analyzer, see notes below gas graph.

Ashbox door closed, air inlet left open 50% to simulate a slightly leaky heater. Damper left open.
Cold air bypass closed.

0.93 g/kg PM (Condar)
13.9 g/kg CO
76.7 % overall efficiency

Very good numbers, but not reliable due to data loss. See notes with gas graph.

February 5/09 - HK-K16

Warm heater
White Birch, 20% moisture
9 pieces, 4.5 lbs kindling, 63.6 lbs total
Smaller pieces, kindling stacked tighter than HK-K15, to slow down start
Slower start. CO and PM spikes, delayed and smaller than HK-K15.

Air left open, flue damper left open. Data collection stopped at 120 minutes.
Very low efficiency at the end, which reduced overall average to 70.0%, slightly lower than others
This is a reference run to get surface temperature data for a cycle with damper open plus ashbox door open (worst case).

1.12 g/kg PM (Condar)
24.99 g/kg CO
70.0 % overall efficiency

February 4/09 - HK-K15

Warm heater
White Birch, 20% moisture
8 pieces, 4.5 lbs kindling, 60.6 lbs total
Smaller pieces, very fast start in kindling stack.
CO spike at beginning, PM spike.

Air closed at 72 minutes with glowing coal bed.
Flue damper left open.

2.09 g/kg PM (Condar)
18.28 g/kg CO
73.1 % overall efficiency

February 3/09 - HK-K14

Warm heater
White Birch, 20% moisture
6 pieces, 4.5 lbs kindling, 62.3 lbs total
Two large logs on bottom.

Air closed at 100 minutes with glowing coal bed.
Flue damper left open.

1.02 g/kg PM (Condar)
15.86 g/kg CO
71.3 % overall efficiency

February 2/09 - HK-K13

Cold heater
White Birch, 20% moisture
6 pieces, 4.5 lbs kindling, 63.0 lbs total

1.02 g/kg PM (Condar)
15.86 g/kg CO
70.7% overall efficiency

January 19/09 - HK-K12

Warm heater
Air closed at 115 minutes. Damper cut back. Closed at 275 minutes.
Somewhat tight stacking, resulting in a bit of PM.
Large kindling, slower start.

White Birch, 20% moisture
7 pieces, 4.5 lbs kindling, 63.0 lbs total

0.89 g/kg PM (Condar)
11.70 g/kg CO
71.7 % overall efficiency

Damper data summary

 

January 18/09 - HK-K11

Warm heater.
Air closed at 112 minutes. Damper left open.
Very staged burn, with evenly shaped half logs.
No overamping, very low CO

White birch, 20% moisture
7 pieces, 4.8 lb kindling, 63.5 lbs total

0.83 g/kg PM (Condar)
7.65 g/kg CO
72.5 % overall efficiency

 

January 17/09 - HK-K10

Warm heater. Surface temperatures are being tracked for damper comparisons, and data will be added later
Damper closed at end of run.

White birch, 20% moisture
7 pieces, 4.3 lb kindling, 60.3 lbs total

Oxygen calibration error. Oxygen values were adjusted in the Condar spreasheet. See Testo spreadsheet for
details.

0.79 g/kg PM (Condar)
9.37 g/kg CO
75.7 % overall efficiency

January 16/09 - HK-K09

Warm heater. Surface temperatures are being tracked for damper comparisons, and data will be added later
Damper left open at end of run

White birch, 20% moisture
8 pieces, 4.3 lb kindling, 63.1 lbs total

Very nice clean, staged start. Fast start.
Slightly smaller wood (8 pieces)

1.00 g/kg PM (Condar)
26.99 g/kg CO
72.3 % overall efficiency

January 15/09 - HK-K08

Warm heater. Surface temperatures are being tracked for damper comparisons, and data will be added later
Damper closed at end of run. (Jan 17/09: damper was found not to be closing all the way. See heatkit.com/research/2009/lopezk-labjack.htm)

White birch, 20% moisture
7 pieces, 4.3 lb kindling, 62.1 lbs total

Very nice clean, staged start.
Pieces stacked a little looser than HK-K07 (yesterday)

0.53 g/kg PM (Condar)
12.42 g/kg CO
70.1 % overall efficiency

January 14/09 - HK-K07

Warm heater. Surface temperatures are being tracked for damper comparisons, and data will be added later
Damper left open at end of run.

White birch, 20% moisture
6 pieces, 4.5 lb kindling, 60.5 lbs total

pieces stacked close together. 2 bottom pieces did not allow air circulation,
slowed down the burn, resulting in slightly higher oxygen and lower efficiency

0.81 g/kg PM (Condar)
15.50 g/kg CO
69.2 % overall efficiency

January 13/09 - HK-K06

Warm heater. Surface temperatures are being tracked for damper comparisons, and data will be added later
Damper closed at end of run. (Jan 17/09: damper was found not to be closing all the way. See heatkit.com/research/2009/lopezk-labjack.htm)

White birch, 20% moisture
6 pieces, 4.5 lb kindling, 63.2 lbs total

False start, had to light kindling newspaper at middle of pile.
First test with grate air open.
Noticeably better burn. Low CO, low PM

0.59 g/kg PM (Condar)
11.43 g/kg CO
72.1 % overall efficiency

NOTE: Condar spreadsheet calculation was modified, starting with this run.
The old spreadsheet was set up for gas readings at 5 minute intervals, which were entered
from the TESTO data spreadsheet.
Now, the averages are calculated directly off the TESTO data, at 30 second intervals, instead of 5 minutes.

 

January 12/09 - HK-K05

Warm heater. Surface temperatures are being tracked for damper comparisons, and data will be added later
Damper left open, with cold air bypass open.

White birch, 20% moisture
6 pieces, 4.5 lb kindling, 63.4 lbs total

Large CO and PM spike about 15 minutes in.
5% efficiency loss due solely to CO, about 3% higher than normal.
Grate air inadvertently closed for entire run.

2.29 g/kg PM (Condar)
45.5 g/kg CO
71.9 % overall efficiency

 

January 11/09 - HK-K04

Warm heater. Surface temperatures are being tracked for damper comparisons, and data will be added later.
Damper closed at end of run. (Jan 17/09: damper was found not to be closing all the way. See heatkit.com/research/2009/lopezk-labjack.htm)

White birch, 20% moisture
6 pieces, 4.5 lb kindling, 63.7 lbs total

Equipment malfunction from minute 0 to 35. Gas values during that interval estimated from previous test.

Kindling mis-start, see details below. Higher PM than previous tests, at 1.5 g/kg.
Grate air inadvertently closed for entire run.

1.47 g/kg PM (Condar)
17.0 g/kg CO
71.7 % overall efficiency

January 10/09 - HK-K03

Warm heater. Surface temperatures are being tracked for damper comparisons, and data will be added later

White birch, 20% moisture
6 pieces, 4.5 lb kindling, 62.3 lbs total

0.48 g/kg PM (Condar)
16.2 g/kg CO
71.7 % overall efficiency

Grate air inadvertently closed for entire run

January 9/09 - HK-K02

Warm heater. Surface temperatures are being tracked for damper comparisons, and data will be added later

White birch, 20% moisture
7 pieces, 4.5 lb kindling, 63.7 lbs total

0.60 g/kg PM (Condar)
13.5 g/kg CO
75.3% overall efficiency

Slightly lower PM due to warm heater. Very consistent CO and efficiency with yesterday
Grate air inadvertently closed for entire run

 

January 8/09 - HK-K01

This is the first run in the HK-K series. Cold heater, warmup run.

Aim is to run a set of consistent repeat runs, to energize the heater identically, for a series of chimney damper tests

White birch, 20% moisture
6 pieces, 4.5 lb kindling, 65.1 lbs total

Difficulty lighting the kindling from the top, with a cold heater.
Fuel pieces were a bit large, 10.1 lbs average

0.94 g/kg PM (Condar)
13.3 g/kg CO
75.2% overall efficiency

Grate air inadvertently closed for entire run

2008 Data Summaries - Condar Dilution Tunnel Testing

Graphical Data Summary

Correlation Between Condar PM number and Opacity Curve

Data Analysis

February 23/08 - HK-J30

This is the last run in the HK-J series.

Largest fuel load of 30 run series.

Maple, 18% moisture, 78.0 lbs
5 round pieces of maple, with 3 pieces of white birch on top, 2 on bottom, 10pieces
Warm heater (162F firebox temp), cold fuel
Side ignition
Cold kindling, 4.0 lbs

Similar to run HK-J29, 1/2 lb more kindling, larger load.
Nice clean start, then fire overamped at 27 minutes, creating large opacity spike for 10 minutes.
Dark grey smoke from stack. However, PM number still reasonably low, indicating that this was pure soot with no tar, as would be expected at this stage in the burn.
This is an interesting demonstration of the high opacity, low mass nature of the soot component of PM.

1.0 g/kg PM (Condar)
21.5 g/kg CO
74.2% overall efficiency

February 22/08 - HK-J29

Lowest surface/volume (largest pieces) of 30 run series

Mixed hardwood, 18% moisture, 70.3 lbs
Round pieces, 2 small pieces of white birch on top, 9 pieces
Stack sloped slightly towards kindling
Warm heater (132F firebox temp), cold fuel
Side ignition
Cold kindling, 3.5 lbs (not enough)

Almost identical load to run HK-J26 (very clean), except a borderline start, requiring one additional piece of kindling.
Interesting example of non-linear system -- high sensitivity to initial conditions.

1.1 g/kg PM (Condar)
19.3 g/kg CO
70.1% overall efficiency

February 21/08 - HK-J28

Highest CO of 30 run series

Maple, 16% moisture, 50.3 lbs
Small pieces, smaller on top, 11 pieces
Stack sloped towards kindling
Warm heater (144F firebox temp), cold fuel
Side ignition
Cold kindling, 4.0 lbs (too much)

Highest PM and CO of any of the "Maple, warm firebox, side ignition" runs.
Also highest surface to volume ratio (smallest pieces), very dry.

1.7 g/kg PM (Condar)
43.7 g/kg CO
71.3% overall efficiency

February 20/08 - HK-J27

Lowest instantaneous CO/CO2 ratio of 30 run series

White birch, 20% moisture, 70.0 lbs
Medium pieces, smaller on top, 10 pieces
Stack sloped towards kindling
Cold heater (90 F firebox temp), Cold fuel (-5 F)
Side ignition.
Cold kindling, 3.5 lbs with 2.25 lbs extra added at 18 minutes (see gas curves)
Lowest instantaneous CO/CO2 ratio of 30 run series - 0.0002 at 84.5 minutes (10 ppm)

1.4 g/kg PM (Condar)
16.7 g/kg CO
72.3% overall efficiency

February 18/08 - HK-J26

Maple, 17% moisture, 68.5 lbs
Medium pieces, all round pieces, smaller on top, 10 pieces
Stack sloped towards kindling
Warm heater (180F firebox temp), warm fuel
Side ignition.
Cold kindling, 3.5 lbs.

0.6 g/kg PM (Condar)
14.7 g/kg CO
74.5% overall efficiency

February 17/08 - HK-J25

Maple, 17% moisture, 69.6 lbs
Large pieces, smaller on top, 8 pieces
Stack sloped towards kindling
Warm heater (167F firebox temp), warm fuel (40F)
Side ignition.
Cold kindling, 3.5 lbs. -- 4 lbs would have been better.

0.9 g/kg PM (Condar)
35.9 g/kg CO
73.3% overall efficiency

February 16/08 - HK-J24

White birch, 20% moisture, 61.3 lbs
Large pieces, smaller on top, 8 pieces
Stack sloped towards kindling
Warm heater (145F firebox temp), cold fuel (0F)
Side ignition.
Cold kindling, small kindling, large amount, very rapid start.

0.9 g/kg PM (Condar)
21.2 g/kg CO
72.7% overall efficiency

February 15/08 - HK-J23

Lowest CO of 30 run series

White birch, 20% moisture, 70.5 lbs
Very large pieces, smaller on top, 7 pieces
Stack sloped towards kindling
Warm heater (137F firebox temp), warm fuel
Side ignition.
Cold kindling, false start, needed boost with torch
Last 10 minutes of gas data lost - substituted with estimated data.
Very low CO.

0.8 g/kg PM (Condar)
13.7 g/kg CO
73.0% overall efficiency

February 14/08 - HK-J22

White birch, 20% moisture, 59.3 lbs
Large and small pieces, 10 pieces, 3.0 lbs kindling
Warm heater (160F firebox temp), warm fuel.
Start was too fast with the birch bark catching right away.

Side ignition.
1.6 g/kg PM (Condar)
36.3 g/kg CO
73.0% overall efficiency

February 13/08 - HK-J21

White birch, 20% moisture, 65 lbs
Large pieces, 8 pieces, 3.5 lbs kindling
Cold heater (80F firebox temp), cold fuel (10F)

Side ignition.
1.0 g/kg PM (Condar)
19.4 g/kg CO
76.8% overall efficiency

February 11/08 - HK-J20

Maple, 17% moisture, 58 lbs
Large pieces, 8 pieces, 4.2 lbs kindling
Cold heater (50F firebox temp), cold fuel (0F)
Compare with HK-J19 (below) -- this is one
scenario where the faster start from bottom
may have an advantage.

Side ignition
2.3 g/kg PM (Condar)
27.6 g/kg CO
74.1% overall efficiency

February 6/08 - HK-J19

Maple, 17% moisture, 55 lbs
Large and small mixed, 8 pieces, 1.5 lbs kindling
Cold heater (48 hrs, 100F firebox temp), cold fuel

Bottom ignition.
1.1 g/kg PM (Condar)
27.9 g/kg CO
74.6% overall efficiency

February 4/08 - HK-J18

White birch, 19% moisture, 55 lbs
13 pieces, 1.5 lbs kindling
Warm heater, warm fuel, small fuel. Bottom ignition, regular air slot
Kindling went out, restarted with torch.

3.3 g/kg PM (Condar)
39.7 g/kg CO
73.8% overall efficiency

February 3/08 - HK-J17

Mixed hardwood, 21% moisture, 64 lbs
8 pieces, 3.2 lbs kindling
Warm heater, warm fuel

0.9 g/kg PM (Condar)
26.8 g/kg CO
73.8 % overall efficiency

February 2/08 - HK-J16

Highest moisture of 30 run series
Highest kindling weight of 30 run series

Wet hardwood, maple and oak, 35% moisture, 84 lbs
12 pieces, 12 lbs kindling
Cold heater (66F), side kindling

Difficult to start. Had to add more kindling twice.

1.9 g/kg PM (Condar)
41.4 g/kg CO
71.9 % overall efficiency

January 30/08 - HK-J15

Large and small maple, 16% moisture,
53 lbs, 9 pieces, 3.3 lbs kindling
Warm heater, cold fuel, side kindling

Clean run. Piece #1 on bottom was too large, difficult to manage coals at end.

0.7 g/kg PM (Condar)
24.3 g/kg CO
74.8 % overall efficiency

January 29/08 - HK-J14

Large and medium maple, 16% moisture,
65 lbs, 8 pieces, 5.5 lbs kindling
Warm heater, cold fuel, side kindling

Mis-start, extra newspaper added.
Also, fuel pile was slow to catch and required 1.5 lbs added kindling.

1.5 g/kg PM (Condar)
23.8 g/kg CO
74.4 % overall efficiency

January 28/08 - HK-J13

OMNI ASTM fuel crib, 10% moisture 44.6 lbs
12 pieces, 2 lbs kindling
Room temp fuel. Warm heater (24 hrs)
Kindling from the side.
Regular air slot in front - 1"

1.0 g/kg PM (Condar)
19.9 g/kg CO
75.1 % overall efficiency

Compare with crib tests
HK-J12, HK-H13, and HK-H12

January 27/08 - HK-J12

Highest PM number of 30 run series
Highes Surface/Volume of 30 run series
Lowest moisture of 30 run series

OMNI ASTM fuel crib, 10% moisture 47.2 lbs
12 pieces, 6 lbs kindling
Room temp fuel. Warm heater (24 hrs)
Kindling from the bottom (underneath pile)
Modified air - front slot reduced 50%

3.6 g/kg PM (Condar)
36.5 g/kg CO
74.7 % overall efficiency

Compare with crib tests
HK-H13, and HK-H12

January 26/08 - HK-J11

White birch, small pieces, 19% moisture, medium load 41 lbs
12 pieces, 1.8 lbs kindling
Cold fuel. Cold heater (66F)
Kindling from the bottom (underneath pile)
Modified air - front slot reduced 50%

1.0 g/kg PM (Condar)
22.1 g/kg CO
78.3 % overall efficiency

January 23/08 - HK-J10

Maple, large pieces, 16% moisture, large load 70 lb.
6 pieces, 2.5 lbs kindling
Cold fuel (0F). Cold heater (66F)
Kindling from the bottom (underneath pile)

1.5 g/kg PM (Condar)
38.6 g/kg CO
74.3 % overall efficiency

January 21/08 - HK-J09

White birch, large and small pieces, 20% moisture, medium load 48.7 lbs
9 pieces, 3.25 lbs kindling
Cold fuel (0F). Cold heater (50F)
Kindling from the bottom (underneath pile)

1.6 g/kg PM (Condar)
19.0 g/kg CO
78.0 % overall efficiency

January 16/08 - HK-J08

Lowest PM number of 30 run series

Hard maple, medium and large pieces, 16% moisture, large load 64.6 lbs
10 pieces, 3.5 lbs kindling
Cold fuel, stacked in warm firebox for 90 minutes. Warm heater (24 hrs)

0.5 g/kg PM (Condar)
27.2 g/kg CO
74.8 % overall efficiency

January 15/08 - HK-J07

White birch, large pieces, 21% moisture, large load 79.1 lbs
8 pieces, 4.5 lbs kindling
Cold fuel, stacked in warm firebox for 90 minutes. Warm heater (24 hrs)

0.9 g/kg PM (Condar)
26.0 g/kg CO
74.7 % overall efficiency

January 14/08 - HK-J06

White birch, medium pieces, 20% moisture, 62.1 lbs
10 pieces, 3.5 lbs kindling
Cold fuel, stacked in warm firebox for 90 minutes. Warm heater (24 hrs)

0.8 g/kg PM (Condar)
23.6 g/kg CO
74.9 % overall efficiency

January 13/08 - HK-J05

Hard maple, medium pieces, 16% moisture, 52 lbs
8 pieces, 3.6 lbs kindling
Cold fuel, stacked in warm firebox for 4 hours. Warm heater (24 hrs)

0.8 g/kg PM (Condar)
27.0 g/kg CO
75.8 % overall efficiency

January 12/08 - HK-J04

Hard maple, medium pieces, 16% moisture, 56.2 lbs
8 pieces, 3 lbs kindling
Cold fuel. Warm heater (24 hrs)

0.9 g/kg PM (Condar) Note: estimated value, due to a gas leak. See page for details.

January 11/08 - HK-J03

Highest piece count (cordwood) of 30 run series

Small white birch, 20% moisture, 51 lbs
Cold heater, cold fuel

Small wood, 15 pieces, stacked tight, 2.75 lbs kindling
2.34 g/kg PM (Condar)
38.75 g/kg CO
76.5 % overall efficiency

January 5/08 - HK-J02

Mixed hardwood, 16% moisture, 61 lbs
Previous fire: 24 hours
Large wood, 8 pieces, 2.5 lbs kindling

0.7 g/kg PM (Condar)
37.9 g/kg CO
74.1% overall efficiency

January 4/08 - HK-J01

White birch, 20% moisture, 51 lbs.
Cold heater, cold wood
Medium wood, 8 pieces, 2.1 lbs kindling

2.0 g/kg PM (Condar)
23.4 g/kg CO
77.5% overall efficiency

October 21 - 31, 2007
Calibration of 4 Condar portable dilution tunnels

Test Results

October 16/07 - HK-I07

FGM series.
White birch, 20% moisture
Previous fire: 24 hours.
Medium wood, evenly sized, 8 pieces. 2.5 lbs kindling. Rear corner teepee side ignition.
Very controlled collapse - even sizing, all half pieces facing down.
Last test in series. Next testing is at CCHRC in Fairbanks, Alaska

October 15/07 - HK-I06

FGM series.
White birch, 20% moisture
Previous fire: 24 hours.
Small wood, 12 pieces. 2 lbs kindling. Top ignition.

October 14/07 - HK-I05

FGM series.
White birch, 20% moisture
Previous fire: 20 hours.
Medium to large wood, large load of kindling (7 lbs)
Very dirty burn - too much kindling, overamped the fire, couldn't get enough air.
Large bottom piece on left partially blocked both front and rear air supplies.
Reference dirty burn.

October 13/07 - HK-I04

FGM series.
White birch, 23% moisture
Previous fire: 24 hours.
Repeat with large fuel, except one extra tier.
Reasonably opacity.

October 12/07 - HK-I03

FGM series.
White birch, 24% moisture
Previous fire: 24 hours.
Very large pieces, still with some moisture inside.
Not quite enought kindling to get "over the hump" of the temperature curve

October 11/07 - HK-I02

FGM series.
White birch, 20% moisture
Previous fire: 24 hours.
Repeat run of KHI-01, with warm heater.
Notice difference in opacity curve

October 10/07 - HK-I01

First test of FGM series.
White birch, 20% moisture
Cold heater, cold fuel
Difficult startup.

March 11/07 - HK-H20

Reference run.
This run was a best guess as to an optimum fuel loading and optimum air.
Very clean, low PM, low CO, very good efficiency.
This run will serve as a benchmark for comparison for future tests.
This concludes the HK-H test series. Next testing will be at 2007 MHA Meeting,
April 13th - 19th, 2007

Jan 9/08: Condar summary added.
CO was 15.6 g/kg

March 10/07 - HK-H19

An interesting run.
It was a repeat of HK-H18, except with a hot heater (10 hrs since last burn),
and with the grate open and the ashbox door closed (air control open).
In other words, hot heater, new HeatKit air, vs. lukewarm heater, old Heatkit air,
with a medium load of large wood - 50 lb.
We captured an accidental chimney draft reversal at the beginning.
The clue is the 35F initial flue temperature reading on the analyzer.
Since the heater exits directly to an outside insulated metal chimney at floor level, this condition is easy to produce. Also, easy to reverse.

March 10/07 - HK-H18

Medium load of large maple. 6 pieces. 19% moisture. 49 lb.
Lukewarm heater (36 hrs since last fire).
Old air system (grate closed, ashbox door open)
Low particulates (smoke), medium CO, medium efficiency.

March 08/07 - HK-H17

Very small maple. 12 pieces. 19% moisture. 47.5 lb
Warm heater. More air than HK-H16 (ashbox door open).
Higher stack temp peak, lower peak to the characteristic crib opacity hump
at the middle of the burn.
Attempt to simulate ASTM crib with hardwood cordwood.

March 07/07 - HK-H16

Very small maple. 12 pieces. 19% moisture. 39 lb
Warm heater. Standard air.
Attempt to simulate ASTM crib with hardwood cordwood.

March 06/07 - HK-H15

Small maple. 8 pieces. 19% moisture. 54 lb
Warm heater. Standard air.
Very clean run.

March 05/07 - HK-H14

Mixed size maple. 7 pieces. 19% moisture. 60 lb
Warm heater. Standard air.
Clean run with a slow start - kindling got hung up and needed extra newspaper.

March 04/07 - HK-H13

ASTM crib test. White spruce 4x4's, 16% moisture. 34 lbs.
Repeat run of HK-H12, yesterday.
Semi-warm heater. Standard air.
Very consistent with HK-H12, considering the warmer heater.

March 03/07 - HK-H12

ASTM crib test. White spruce 4x4's, 17% moisture . 34 lbs.
Cold heater. Standard air.
Very different burn, as evidenced by the gas and opacity curves.
Compare with HK-H10, regular hardwood, cold heater.

March 01/07 - HK-H11

Small hardwood , 9 pieces. 19% moisture. 52 lbs.
Cold heater. Cold fuel.
Experimental air system switched in for selected intervals.
Noted mainly for its ability to produce huge opacity spikes at the beginning!

February 28/07 - HK-H10

Large mixed hardwood , 6 pieces. 19% moisture. 50.5 lbs.
Revised opacity system
Cold heater.

February 25/07 - HK-H09

Large mixed hardwood , 7 pieces. 19% moisture. 55.5 lbs
Cold heater.

February 22/07 - HK-H08

Very large white birch, 6 pieces. 21% moisture. 62 lbs

February 21/07 - HK-H07

Very large maple, 7 pieces. 19% moisture. 64 lbs

February 20/07 - HK-H06

Small maple, 9 pieces. 19% moisture. 49 lbs

February 19/07 - HK-H05

Large maple, 7 pieces. 19% moisture. 51 lbs

February 18/07 - HK-H04

Load of medium maple, 8 pieces. 19% moisture. 49 lbs
Animation posted. Fueling data posted
Other data to follow.

February 17/07 - HK-H03

Load of large maple, 6 pieces. 19% moisture. 57.5 lbs
Animation posted. Data to follow.

February 16/07 - HK-H02

A dry run using white birch. Animation posted. Data to follow. 39.7 lbs

February 15/07: Update

We have our new gas analyzer and other new equipment installed, and did a dry run test last night. Look for more data soon.

April 3/06: Update

After the Feb 21 test, about 25 repeat burns were observed anecdotally in a heater with a similar air setup that heats our house. Formal testing has been suspended until we take delivery of a new TESTO 330-2 gas analyzer. It will be shipped directly to the annual MHA meeting in North Carolina (April 13 - April 20), where we plan to build and test an experimental heater.

February 21/06 - HK-G14

A repeat of the "side burn" from yesterday, except with a large load of large, cold wood.
Again, no opacity spike and an almost smokeless burn.
Although it requires more detailed testing to confirm, this appears to be a significant result.

February 20/06 - HK-G13

A very interesting test. First test with no opacity spike.

February 19/06 - HK-G12

Restricted air, very large load, large wood stacked tight, extra kindling.

February 18/06 - HK-G11

Restricted air, large load, large wood

February 17/06 - HK-G10

A repeat of HK-G07, with unrestricted air

February 16/06 - HK-G09

Cold heater, cold fuel, small load.

February 13/06 - HK-G08

Restricted air (ashbox door closed, air slider open)

The last two tests were very interesting. Some of the kinks have finally been resolved with the opacity measurements.

February 12/06 - HK-G07

Unrestricted air (ashbox door open)

Previous Tests:

Feb 01/06 - Preliminary Test

This test was a dry run.

The heater was not preheated.
Test fuel was cold (brought in from outside)
Fuel was not weighed, it was approximately 1/2 a load (35 lbs)

Fuel load stacked in firebox.

Graph of stack temperature and light extinction.


Photo taken at the opacity peak at 5 minutes.


Photo taken 3 minutes later, when the opacity reading was near zero.
Stack temperature is low.
Steam can be seen condensing as it exits the chimney.
This has to be distinguished from smoke, and makes visual assessment more complicated.

Comments:

The light extinction in the test section of flue seems to be a
good predictor of visible smoke from the chimney.

Past particulate matter (PM-10) testing experience at Lopez indicates
that visible smoke is a very good predictor of grams per kilogram
particulate emissions.

At this point, no calibration of the CdS sensor has been done,
so the next step is to determine whether we are in the linear
range of the sensor's light response.

Further Results :

February 6/06:

Paul Tiegs, principal at OMNI-Test, has commented that opacity testing was tried in the 1980's with coventional woodstoves, and did not find strong correlation with particulates.

Paul adds that EPA has a standard method, (U.S. EPA Method 9), that requires readings to be made at various distances downstream of the chimney exit, depending on the dissipation of moisture particles. There is another test method that is in-stack, but requires the gas stream to be higher than 350F or so, so that volatile organics remain uncondensed.

In view of Paul's comments, we have done elementary testing of the CdS sensor for linearity, but decided to concentrate first on determining if this method as a whole is useful for the particular case of masonry heaters.

Since we are measuring at the chimney entry, we do not appear to be getting water condensation in the flue stream, but can't be certain at this point. This requires some further investigation. Since we are mainly investigating the cold start, it takes some time before gas temperatures reach 350F.

This is a view through the ceramic glass end cap on the horizontal flue, illuminated by a flashlight beam, during combustion.

The far end (left side) downdraft channel is clearly visible. Small particles of ash caught in the flashlight beam provide a good visualization of the gas path and speed (not visible from the photograph).

The thermocouple/draft probe is inserted through the damper frame and visible.

February 8/06

We have conducted 2 more burns (G02 and G03). Both times, there were some glitches with the CdS sensor setup, which should be resolved for the next test.

You can view a 5 Mb animation of test G-03 here. It shows the startup at 30 second intervals for the first 20 minutes, and 5 minute intervals for another 40 minutes or so. Note: the flames appear redder in the photos than they do to the eye. Fuel load was 62 lbs.

The Excel data for G03 (Feb 8) is posted: here

February 10/06

Here's a 4Mb animation of test G-04, with less air. Fuel load was 55 lbs. All runs are with 8 pieces of fuel.

February 11/06

Here is an experimental animation page of test G-05 and G-06, comparing the two burns.

February 12/06

An interesting test

February 13/06

An interesting test to compare with February 12

 

This page was updated on  January 27/2014
This page was created on February 4, 2006